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LanduseSim Resources Center

Last Update : September, 2017

Welcome to the LanduseSim Resource
Key Concepts
Hardware Requirements
LanduseSim Software Installation
LanduseSim Model
LanduseSim Modules
LanduseSim Features
Simple Hints


Welcome to the center resource of LanduseSim for practitioners and researcher. This resource attempting to focus primarily on brief understanding about the LanduseSim including its some features as land use simulation software.

LanduseSim is an initiative project in order to create a spatial simulation model that can fully exploit the capabilities of modern computation. LanduseSim is all about removing the obstacles that constraint urban and regional planners today and allowing them to unleash creativity in promoting robust scientific of spatial planning framework.



LanduseSim is a GIS tool for land use/ land cover change modeling and simulation. LanduseSim able to deal with land dynamic simulation with a huge expectation. LanduseSim is an appropriate software to do massive simulation such as predict of urban sprawl and land-use change prediction undergo computer iteration. More advance in utilization, LanduseSim is capable on delivering several crucial frameworks for urban planning processes such as explaining the land use/cover changes, generate more various planning scenarios, evaluating the developing plans, simulate the plans, and provide feed-backs for deep understanding of changes. LanduseSim was designed to be a stand-alone software (not an extension for certain software), however several initial operations require GIS software (Quantum/ Ilwis/ Grass/ ArcView/ ArcGIS) in order to prepare input data for LanduseSim. LanduseSim is targeted for urban & regional planner, real estate planner, geographer, environmental scientist, developer, academia, planning agency, and other whom interested in land use observation, planning and management.

As a Land-use Modeling Tool, LanduseSim has several advantages compare than others. It is a stand-alone software while most of land-use modeling software used as an extension for certain software (depend on parental-software). It is very fast to deal with very intense iteration using big data of land use/land cover map. Furthermore, LanduseSim has high of computational efficiency for CPU so user still able playing musics, games, movies, or other office works while do running on simulation without worrying about losing the power of calculation, and absolutely it keeps expand your battery life. To ensure the valid modeling, LanduseSim was designed by implementing Enhanced Cellular Automata Model Algorithm, a cutting-edge of methodology for land scape simulation. LanduseSim also equipped by user-friendly GUI (Graphic User Interface). LanduseSim only compatible with Microsoft Windows 7 and Windows 8.

This design philosopy was translated into the fundamental concepts that underlie the LanduseSim :
1. Pre-building and re-use of GIS data
it’s more efficient to do something just once ahead of time and re-use the result than to repeat the same process over and over again. LanduseSim allows user to create all GIS data, schematic model, on other GIS software i.e. ESRI ArcGIS, QGIS, with unlimited restriction processes and uses LanduseSim for simulation part.
2. Real logic development on methodology
LanduseSim lets user to understand and thing about the real condition of simulation, and providing opportunities to model in spatial form. It also encourages spatial planners to thing out of the box, make it into certain model, and execute it.
3. Flexibility to many planning frameworks
LanduseSim not resctricted to certain planning framework, moreover it is flexible to be adopted into may planning frameworks of nations. LanduseSim able to simulate spatial scenarios of plan, evaluate the existing planning, create predictions, and continously update to support the planning.

In general, LanduseSim doesn’t need a special computer specification, however the great spec will lead to the highest computation ability in particularly for intensive iteration and performance. Here we provide some recommended hardware requirements;
Processor : Intel or AMD Dual core processors
Graphic Card : On board system
RAM : 2 GB
OS : Windows 7 32 bit
HDD Space : 5 GB
Processor : Intel or AMD Quad core processors
Graphic Card : On board system
RAM : 4 GB
OS : Windows 7 64 bit
HDD Space : 10 GB

In order to install the software, we have provide a bundle of package. Everything in this tutorial should work with LanduseSim version 2.2 and newer, unless a footnote says otherwise.

Double click LanduseSim 2.2 Software (.exe) >> choose the installation folder directory >> install until finish

LanduseSim requires internet connection to connect the server (www.landusesim.com). If your connection is interupt or not available, an Error Message will pop up. If you’re working on office wi-fi connectivity that requires set proxy, please set your proxy before open LanduseSim. Proxy users will be asked about the proxy and proxy username-password.


This scheme is simply describe in brief about general model within LanduseSim simulation procedure.

LanduseSim Model

Land suitability map overlay generated by the mechanism overlaying the driving-factor as well as several restrictions, such as zoning for green open space, protected areas, slope, hazards, and more. Transition Map is generated by neighborhood filter operation to suitability map. These mechanisms take place in sequence until the time-step iteration is complete.

>> Tool to Import-Export File from/to ESRI ArcGIS and LanduseSim
This module is used to interact with ArcGIS ASCII files. If the source file is ASCII file is integer  (Land use/land cover code), select the integer format meanwhile choose decimal format for decimal data such as Euclidean Distance file.

>> Preview Grid File
In this menu there are two main functions, namely the data preview and data distribution calculations. Preview the data is useful for viewing the image file, such as existing land use map and simulation result. The calculation of the distribution of the data is useful for calculate based on grid by each land use codes.

>> Map Comparison
Tool to compare the two maps, calculate the detail of grid file, as well as compute the similiarity between two maps. This tool can be used to analyze landuse change and accuracy assesment. The Accuracy Assesment only available in LanduseSim version 2.1 and newer.

>> Fuzzy Set Memberships
This tool is Fuzzy set memberships convert the value become real number format (0-1). There are two operations of Fuzzy set memberships in LanduseSim; Monotonically Increasing and Monotonically Decreasing. Monotonically Increasing is used when attempting to represent the farthest distance is better and Monotonically Decreasing is to represent the decay effect. On the other landuse modeling softwares, they offer byte number (0-255), which is more small range of various value (255 unique values), and it’s not good for spatial modelling that require high precision.

>> Weighted Raster
This tool is used to create the Suitability Map of driving factors. The concept of Weighted Raster is overlaying equipped with each weight. This function is similar to Weighted Sum ESRI ArcGIS

>> Filter Map
This tool is used to calculate raster value by means of Neighborhood Filter and its operation.

>> Rank Map
Tool to order computer calculate the map by evaluating the value from minimum to maximum value

>> Neighborhood Filter
Tool to create filter including its customization, such as size, type, operation and weight. LanduseSim allows user to construct personal filter in two format; filter 3×3 and filter 5×5. Filter 3×3 is common used by researchers for simulating landuse, because of its compactness result. Each of Neighborhood Filter has various neighborhood operations, i.e. Sum, Mean, Minimum and Maximum

>> Conversion Probability (Elasticity of Change)
Tool to create the probability map based on the possibility of certain landuse change to other state of landuse, or it can be referred as Elasticity of Change.

>> Transition Rules
Sequences : the sequences of iteration
Code : the land use code that is expected to growth
Growth : Number of cell to growth
Suitability Map : the final map of suitability for certain land use to growth
Land Constraints : the code of land use that is not allowed to change during the simulation process
Elasticity of change : the rate of change elasticity for certain land use to be converted by simulated land use
Output Temporary files : the temporary raster file to stored as final map of iteration for each of sequence

>> LUCC Simulation
Start Date and End Date are defined as the range projection for period of simulation
Initial Landuse : the existing landuse map as initial basemap for simulation procedure
Initial Transition Potential Map : a single map that used as initial transitio
Neighborhood Filter : the filter of neighborhood type as well as its operation
CA Time Step : Time step of simulation
Output Final : URL file as the final map of iteration

1.) LanduseSim emerged by combining Geographical Science and Urban-Regional Planning. In this context, LanduseSim not only capable to perform simulation based on Trends, moreover it able to perform simulation based on Engineering as well. This approach considered the future is not only shaped by trends, but more often driven by any kind interventions to change the existing pattern, such as new infrastructures, regulation , zoning, planning, disaster and so forth.

>> Scenario of Infrastructure Planning and Development

In the illustration above, there are two alternatives scenarios of additional road plan. By simulating both scenarios, scenario 1 and 2, planner will able to choose the less impact on the composition of the land, involved terms of economy, investment and the environment. Note: The figure shows urban area (8 Ha) was projected to grow 10 Ha (total 18Ha).
The picture above demonstrate that LanduseSim also capable on simulating various scenarios where intervention on infrastructure plan is taking into account to land use change.

>> Scenario of Zoning Implementation

LanduseSim also capable on deliver an robust experiment towards zoning implementation under land use simulation. In figure above, the zoning is used to protect some areas from alteration. In addition, the mechanism of zoning could be used instead, which is where the change only happens in the area bounded by zoning.

>> Scenario of Emergence of new type of Land Use

The illustration above shows LanduseSim capable to predict by involving the emergence of new type land use. This ability will be very special and important, in particularly to deal with spatial planning which always dealing with long term of land use plan.

2.) LanduseSim generates land use prediction maps in sequences-series of time. It allows user to perform detail observations related to the dynamic land use map. By learning to the future prediction maps, planners, geographers, and researchers better on generating future spatial planning.

3.) LanduseSim also capable to predict the new land use/land cover growth, while other softwares can’t do. It is believed that the composition of landuse will never be the same. For instance, an agricultural region (only compose with settlements and farms) that have historically never existed other landuse such as commercial area, industry, warehousing, hotels and so forth. When there is a policy of national scale infrastructure development in that region, the question is whether the infrastructure does not encourage the emergence of new activities around the infrastructure as well as changing the composition of landuse/landcover?

Click the image to enlarge

4.) Running concurrent multi-tasking on simulation and high stability in computation. LanduseSim can be executed with more than 1 simulation simultaneously, by opening of more than one application LanduseSim. The process of simulation can be optimally adapted to hardware capabilities possessed. in this case is the processor speed and memory capacity affect the simulation process. We have tested to run the simulation using big data up to 19 hours and LanduseSim demonstrate its stability in computation. It allows user to simulate several scenarios simultaneously. Note: Open task manager (Ctrl+Alt+Del), and optimal speedof simulation when your CPU usage is less than 95%.

landusesim multitasking

Determination of Cell Size
Cell size is obtained by considering the detail level of the result maps, or it can also be adjusted to the desired map scale. In general, studies with level mapping 1: 50,000 may use a cell size of 100×100 meters and 1: 25,000 ~ 50×50 meters, or can refer to the land use modeling studies ever.
The size of cells / grid can also refer to the resolution level land use/Land cover map derived from the raw data. For example, if the map LU / LC derived from images such as Landsat, which has a cell size of 60mx60m, then the other raster data have to be built following the size.

Determination of Weight on Weighted Raster
This mechanism is intended to determine the influence by a factor towards a specific purpose, in the case of LanduseSim used for the purpose of making a map of land suitability units. Determination of weights can be done by the method of AHP, even though that may also be determined by a simple priority values.

Determination of Neighborhood Filter
Neighborhood Filter is a neighborhood operation in simple shape of grid. If the cell size is detail and the effect of neighborhood is wider, Filter 5×5 is suit for that case. Meanwhile, whereas cell size is large or/and the effect of neighborhood only depends on closest neighbors, it appropriate to be used Filter 3×3. In general, there is no definite provision for the use of filters. By studying more previous studies, it will help to decide the shape and size the filter.

Determination of Conversion Probability
This value is also the assumption of the researchers, the amount some papers to refer to and modify previous research. But the value of this probability can be generated fixed by overlaying two land use maps, so it can see the value of conversion rate of a certain land use to other land use. Although the overlay so often does not capture the phenomena that might occur.
It also possible to be be assumed especially when there is the phenomenon of change that should allow but the series of land use maps not capture the phenomenon. If this case is occur, user must decide the value based on the actual probability of conversion the land use at study area. For Instance, if our series maps start from 2000 to 2010 not capture the phenomenon “Agriculture was converted by Settlement area”, we have think that is logic and sometimes happen so we have put the value of conversion otherwise the prediction maps never show the settlement area expansion convert the agriculture land, even when they are adjacent location.

Determination of Growth Cell
Number of growth cell can be generated through simply trend analysis based on series of land use maps. In addition, it also possible to be analyzed by other methods which more complex, such as optimization or based on targets (plan). Somehow the target/desire growth come up from local government, participatory public, expert and planner under context of spatial planning.
The size of unit of growth cells in LanduseSim follows the size of raster grid on raw data. The growth cell should not be a decimal number, must be an integer. If there is a decimal number shall be rounded first.

Determination of Land constraint
Land constraint is used to define the constraint based on the desired and / or based on the logic probably occurs in reality. For instance, when we want to simulate the growth of settelemtn, and the land constraint is Industria area, it means when the settlement growth will never able to convert industry area.

We have published several videos tutorial on YouTube about Data Preparation on ArcGIS and Basic Modeling Urban Growth : LanduseSim Playlist

Currently we already have published manual tutorial documentation for basic spatial modeling in English and Spanish version. Each version also equipped by Shapefile (.shp) datasets.

Download English Version (PDF 3.1 Mb) – Author: Nursakti Adhi Pratomoatmojo
Download Shapefile Dataset for English version

Download Spanish Version (PDF 2.7 Mb) – Author: Santiago Linares & Nursakti Adhi Pratomoatmojo
Download Shapefile Dataset for Spanish Version
Download Material for LanduseSim-LE [Link]



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